Frederic Church's Area-by-Area Process
This plein-air oil study by Frederic Church was left unfinished, which gives us a glimpse into his process.
Bavarian Landscape; Frederic Edwin Church (American, 1826–1900)
USA; brush and oil, pencil on academy board.; 27.3 x 30 cm (10 3/4 x 11 13/16 in.)
Church first outlined big areas of the scene in pencil over a sealed and toned paper surface. He then covered them in oil paint from the top to the bottom.
This area-by-area method of painting is sometimes called "window shading" because it's like pulling down a window shade.