Lebedev's Oil Study
I'm just guessing, but he probably did study on an oil-primed surface, and that he must have done a preliminary pencil drawing and laid in the tones fairly thinly.
More Etruscan Sketches
My job is to digest all the information and to explore lots of variations in visual terms.
In the case of this tomb, big sections of the wall mural were lost or damaged, and the contents of the tomb were missing, so we studied evidence from other tombs to guess what the full picture must have looked like.
Gérôme Study of an Angel
Walter Shirlaw's Studies
Walter Shirlaw (1838-1909) was a Scottish-born American, a painter, banknote engraver and teacher.
His painting "Toning the Bell" (1874, Chicago Art Institute) shows the foreman striking the bell with a hammer, while the violinist plays a reference note.
The faces, hands, and postures of the two main characters show that they have different personalities and that they come from different worlds.
This page of studies shows the construction of the violin, how the left hand needs to finger the strings, and a couple options for the bow hand.
Saul Tepper Thumbnail
Emil Hünten's Preliminaries
|Emil Hünten, Frederick the Great on horseback|
2) Watercolor studies
and 3) Tone paper with pencil and gouache. He probably also used lay figures and maquettes.
More about Emil Hünten on Wikipedia
Studies for Dagnan Bouveret's "Breton Women at Pardon"
Study and finish for Breton Women at a Pardon by Pascal Dagnan-Bouveret.
"Study for Women at a Pardon, 1887. Black ink, pencil, charcoal.
Sketch for the two women on conversation to the far right."
|Photograph of Dagnan at his easel while his wife |
poses in Breton costume. Taken in 1886
|"Woman in Breton Costume Seated in a Meadow, c 1887, |
an oil on canvas study for the central outward looking figure."
|"1887 photographic study of the group, including the standing men"|
Dagnan's easel on rails
Using photo reference
Herbert Draper's Prospero Mural
Here he is in his studio working on the large oval composition, with the bottom edge rolled under. He has various ladders and platforms to allow him to reach the life-size figures.
The mural shows "Prospero Summoning Nymphs and Deities," a scene based on Shakespeare's play The Tempest.
Evolution of a Picture, Part 4 of 4: Refining the Idea
|Aimé Morot, Jewish Captives in Babylon, sketch and finish|
|Studies of Hands by Adolphe Menzel|
"It may be said that an artist never finds a model which corresponds exactly to his ideal, and he is obliged to make changes of form and expression in making his studies. Certain characteristics may be accentuated and others suppressed, while others which the model may not possess are supplied from memory, imagination, or from other models.
"All of these processes admit of a certain amount of refinement, correction, or simplification of the original study, and anything which gives an artist an opportunity to prolong his preparations and shorten the time of the actual painting of a picture is of great benefit, as the result will be more spontaneous, fresher, and more vigorous than if it is puttered over and shows traces of experiment.
"The artist's studies are the ammunition with which he loads up for a final effective coup, which makes a hit or a miss, as his aim has been true or not. That such studies are requisite for good work is the universal verdict of all who have essayed to teach the art of painting.
|Study by Friedrich August von Kaulbach, 1878|
"'It is undoubtedly a splendid and desirable accomplishment to be able to design instantaneously any given subject,' says Sir Joshua Reynolds in his Twelfth Discourse. 'It is an excellence that I believe every artist would wish to possess; but unluckily, the manner in which this dexterity is acquired habituates the mind to be contented with first thoughts, without choice or selection. The judgment, after it has been long passive, by degrees loses its power of becoming active when exertion is necessary. Whoever, therefore, has this talent must in some measure und what he had the habit of doing, or a least give a new turn to his mind.'
"Great works which are to live and stand the criticism of posterity are not performed at a heat. A proportionable time is required for deliberation and circumspection.
|Oil-painted studies by J.C. Leyendecker|
|Alphonse-Marie-Adolphe de Neuville Defense of the Gate|
"Illustrations such as those accompanying this article present no element of novelty to the practiced artist. There are who have essayed creative work who have not well-filled sketches of similar character and equal interest. To those, however, unfamiliar with the methods of the studio they give an insight more convincing than words could furnish into the way in which artists have produced the disjecta membra, so to speak, of their finished compositions. It would be interesting in the case of some noted picture to reproduce the finished work together with all the studies that entered into its composition."
Editor's note: The author is muralist and critic Edgar Spier Cameron (1862-1944) from Chicago. He studied at the Art Students League in New York and the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris. His teachers were Dewing, Inness, Cabanel, Lefebvre, Boulanger, Laurens, and Benjamin-Constant.
Sources and More Info:
Evolution of a Picture: A Chapter on Studies by Edgar Cameron in Brush and Pencil Magazine
Vol. 8, No. 3 (June, 1901), pp. 121-133
Evolution of the Picture, Part 3: Maquettes and Animals
Morot's motion device
You can find more about these methods in my book Imaginative Realism.
Ernest Meissonier exhibition catalog.
Frederic Leighton Abrams book.