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THE WATCHISMO TIMES WATCH BLOG A reliquary of obscure timepieces from bygone eras as well as the cutting-edge watch designs of today.

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The Meandering History of Wandering Hours

The Meandering History of Wandering HoursThe Wandering Hour display (also known as a Floating Hour or Chronoscope) has been around four centuries. In 1656 the Campanus brothers had built a night clock for Pope Alexander XII. In a total innovation, they replaced the then conventional hands with hour figures on rotating discs, which performed a semicircular arc across the clock face. The correct figure appeared at the start of each new hour. It then moved clockwise across the arc of the dial and, depending on its progress, simultaneously marked the quarter or half-hour, which had just passed. Alexander's night pendulum clock was illuminated by an oil lamp so that the pope could see the time in the dark. The concept is that the moving hour display keeps an almost metaphorical count of the passing minutes rising and setting along the hourly arc.

"It is a deceptively simple and elegant system, and it is literally as old as the combination of concentric hours and minutes hands to which we are so accustomed. -- The orbit of the elegantly simple planetary ring, and the epicyclic dance of hour numerals which surrounded it, remained hidden beneath a solid dial." (source)

The Meandering History of Wandering HoursCampani Brothers Tabernacle Night Clock
Late 17th Century --> Link

Below are samples of Wandering Hour watches over the past four centuries. Only during the past few decades have watchmakers realized the full beauty of this display and exposed their dials to reveal the symbolic inner workings as part of the design itself.

The Meandering History of Wandering HoursWatches with wandering hour dials first appeared in the 17th century. In England, they were often commissioned by the King, to be presented to visitors or in recognition of loyalty to the country. The watch above from 1710 is likely the portrait of Frederick I of Prussia (1657-1713) -->Link

One of the earliest watchmakers to adapt this style to a pocket watch was British watchmaker Joseph Windmills. Joseph Antram, watchmaker to the King of England also produced wandering hours like this one-->Link

The Meandering History of Wandering HoursA variation was the 'Sun and Moon' dial. A 1750 Dutch pocket watch by G.Knip (above). Within the inner half ring, a revolving disc is painted with the sun and moon rotating every 24 hours, thereby indicating not only the hour but whether it is day or night. A minute hand was used in the normal circular fashion. -->Link Another model-->Link

The Meandering History of Wandering HoursSideview of the 'Sun Moon' Wandering Hour

The Meandering History of Wandering Hours1820 Chronos Breguet Wandering Hour
Etablissement Mixte series

Typically, four digits appear on three disks, each rotating epicyloidally one quarter while out of view and advancing to the next corresponding hour. The minutes were easily approximated by the hour position within the arc.

The Meandering History of Wandering HoursBreguet Wandering Hour Wristwatch by Gubelin

The Meandering History of Wandering HoursThe Audemars Piguet "Star Wheel" reinvented this system in the early 1990s, creating many variations of wandering hour wristwatches. "Three transparent sapphire disks, or star wheels, are each inscribed with four hour indicators and attached to a rotating center wheel. As the assembly turns, the current hour indicator is rotated into view and then passed across a 120-degree minutes sector. The time is read by noting the visible hour pointing to the current minute." (source) Additional information-->Link

The Meandering History of Wandering HoursStar Wheel Sapphire Disks

Each disk is obscured until it rises into the arc where the background contrasts the digits into legibility.

The Meandering History of Wandering HoursLate 1990s "John Schaeffer Star Wheels"
With Minute Repeater

The Meandering History of Wandering Hours2000 Millenary Star Wheel
125th Anniversary Model

The Meandering History of Wandering HoursVincent Calabrese "Horus"

"The wandering dates conceived by Vincent Calabrese (above & below), The jumping hour hand is displayed in a small window that turns around the dial, showing the minutes passing. There is only one hand on the dial, that of the seconds. The same principle as it applies to the date is a world first." (source)

The Meandering History of Wandering HoursVincent Calabrese "Ottica"

The Meandering History of Wandering HoursAlain Silberstein Wandering Hour "Cyclops"

These orbiting satellite displays have had a few revivals over the past 300 years but only in wristwatches in the past few decades. The brand Urwerk (below) is taking this very old concept to interstellar levels. Their revolutionary wandering hour displays have become three dimensional, the numbers are placed on spinning conical discs or rotating cubes with retractable retrograde pointers.

The Meandering History of Wandering HoursUrwerk's original 101
Inspired by the Campanus Night Clocks
and the Millennium Falcon from Star Wars

The Meandering History of Wandering HoursUrwerk series 102 "Nightwatch"
also known as "Sputnik"

The Meandering History of Wandering Hours
The Urwerk wandering display was just too cool to keep covered.

The Meandering History of Wandering HoursUrwerk 103 series
Their first display with exposed hours

"The innovative rotating satellite complication is the heart and soul of the 103 series of watches. The orbital cross carries the four hour-satellites and an internal Geneva cross governs each of these satellites. Each of the satellite features three hour numbers four hours apart. As a satellite approaches the crown, its Geneva cross engages a pin and rotates the disk 120° for the new hour to take its position." (source)

The Meandering History of Wandering HoursThe Urwerk 201 'Hammerhead'

The Meandering History of Wandering HoursThe Urwerk team evolved their Wandering Hour into cubes and retrograde minutes for the Harry Winston "Opus V."

The Meandering History of Wandering HoursQP Magazine recently featured this public clock in London, The Newgate Clock, possibly the only public wandering hour clock in the world. It was created by horologist Joanna Migdal and inspired by Joseph Windmills original designs. See how it works here-->Link

"The innovation lies not only in the display which evokes the natural course of the sun on the horizon, but also on the original satellite mechanism whose future applications are yet to be discovered." (source)

Related Posts;
Jump Hour Watches
Mystery Dial Watches
Watch History
Retrograde Watches

Find other watches


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Jam Handy Watchmaking Films of 1947-1949 for Hamilton Watch Co.

Jam Handy Watchmaking Films of 1947-1949 for Hamilton Watch Co.Count how many times they say "Fine Watch Fine" in this 1947 Jam Handy film for the Hamilton Watch Company and you'll get dizzy. Also, hang in there through the awesomely corny beginning for the high tech American watchmaking bravado that follows. Video-->Link

Jam Handy Watchmaking Films of 1947-1949 for Hamilton Watch Co.
"How A Watch Works", Jam Handy's 1949 educational film about mechanical wristwatches and how they work. Video-->Link

Thanks to Archive.org for these kitschy nuggets of watchmaking history!


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The Rarest Digital Watches - 1972 Dynamic Scattering LCD

The Rarest Digital Watches - 1972 Dynamic Scattering LCD
The Dynamic Scattering Liquid Crystal Display, the precursor to the common gray 'Field Effect' LCD displays of today. Only produced for two years, they are rarer than most other vintage digital LED watches of the seventies. Digits were low contrast silver and only really visible when looking directly at the watch. Pulling and twisting the crown in either direction sets the watch but you must hold it as it advances just one minute at a time.

Relatively obscure to most collectors, the Dynamic Scattering LCDs were difficult to read, housed in giant cases and frustrating to set time. That's exactly why they're so damn cool.


The Rarest Digital Watches - 1972 Dynamic Scattering LCDMathey Tissot (Left)
Roamer MicroQuartz (Right)

Some LCD history (via Smithsonian)
(kinda boring so feel free to skip down to the watch photos below)

Liquid crystals are organic substances that reflect light when voltage is applied.

In a watch display, the liquid crystal material is sandwiched in between two layers of glass. A transparent electrode pattern has been applied on the inner surfaces of the glass in the shape of the digital bars used in the time display. The integrated circuit applies voltage to the appropriate segments of the display, which reflect the ambient light to display the time. These molecules are affected by the voltage in such a way that they contrast sharply with the molecules in the rest of the display that do not receive current. Because LCDs reflect, rather than emit, light, the voltage requirements are quite low.

Scientists have known about liquid crystals since the 1880s.

Scientists have known about liquid crystals since the end of the 19th century, but applications appeared only in the 1960s. Friedrich Reinitzer and Otto Lehmann first noted their behavior and named them in the 1880s. European laboratory scientists came to understand the physics and chemistry of liquid crystals during the 1930s, but it wasn't until the 1960s that investigations began in the United States in both basic research and practical uses for liquid crystals.

LCD watches first appeared in 1970, but the display required improvement.

The first liquid crystal displays were developed in 1968 by a research group at RCA's David Sarnoff Research Center, headed by George Heilmeier. This display was based on the dynamic scattering mode. In 1970 Nunzio Luce, Louis Zanoni, George Graham, and Joel Goldmacher left RCA and joined Optel Corporation, where they developed the first LCD display for commercial purposes, including the digital watch display.

Because the DSM LCDs suffered from relatively high power consumption, limited life, and poor contrast, the search continued for a workable LCD. James Fergason at Kent State invented an improved display based on the twisted nematic field effect in 1969. Fergason left Kent State and formed ILIXCO Corporation to manufacture his display. The first LCD watch with an ILIXCO display was marketed by Gruen. The field effect display is the kind most frequently found in today's LCD products.

Much more can be found in the Pieter Doensen book, "Watch - History of the Modern Wristwatch" -->Link

A visual history of some Dynamic Scattering LCD watches 1972-1974;


The Rarest Digital Watches - 1972 Dynamic Scattering LCDUnknown Sideview DS LCD

The Rarest Digital Watches - 1972 Dynamic Scattering LCDVery rare Spacesonic (Spaceman Audacieuse)


The Rarest Digital Watches - 1972 Dynamic Scattering LCD1972 BWC (from extensive digital collection at Magic Digitals)


The Rarest Digital Watches - 1972 Dynamic Scattering LCDDS LCD Quartz Module

The Rarest Digital Watches - 1972 Dynamic Scattering LCDBWC, Milus, Wyler, Glycine, Ditronic

Other brands that produced DS LCD;
Microma, Optel, Elgin, Nepro, Texas Instruments,
Silvania, Rodania, Titus, Helvetia, Computime,
Richard, Pallas, Sandoz and Zodiac

The Rarest Digital Watches - 1972 Dynamic Scattering LCDJules Jurgensen OPTCOM 1
Top photo shows the low contrast silver display

The Rarest Digital Watches - 1972 Dynamic Scattering LCD
The Rarest Digital Watches - 1972 Dynamic Scattering LCDLongines / Swissonic 2000

The Rarest Digital Watches - 1972 Dynamic Scattering LCDWestclox Quartzmatic





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Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock History

Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock History
"Travelers have benefited from any number of portable timepieces over the years. During the 19th century, as more and more people began to travel by carriage, they needed timepieces that could travel with them. One such timepiece was the carriage clock, whose remarkably shockproof movement was perfected by the French watchmaker Abraham Louis Brequet in the late 18th century. In other instances, pocket watches were placed in leather holders that fit over the front board of the carriage. As inventors and manufacturers like Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler, Charles and J. Frank Duryea, Henry Ford, and Ransom E. Olds furthered development of the automobile, a new breed of clock was introduced—the car clock.

By 1908, speedometer companies were producing and marketing clocks as after-market accessories. Over the next decade, the car clock grew in popularity and several companies began catering to the growing market, including the Phinney-Walker Keyless Clock Company, the Warner Instrument Company, the Seth Thomas Clock Company, the Stewart Speedometer Company, the Chelsea Clock Company, and the Boston Clock Company. In some cases, there was a clear crossover between marine clocks and automobile clocks. Waltham, a major supplier of car clocks, marketed identical timepieces for both automobiles and boats.

Manufactures gave customers many choices offering models that mounted on general interior surfaces, dashboards, steering wheels, gearshifts, and rear-view mirrors. The winding mechanisms also evolved from key-wind clocks to stem-wind clocks to rim-wind clocks. During the 1930s and 1940s, electric automobile clocks were in production, but mechanical clocks were still being offered. It was not until 1950s and 1960s that electric clocks truly dominated the market, at least up until the advent of quartz technology. Today's car clocks mostly have quartz movements, however new technologies like Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are available as both production and after-market accessories."

From the NAWCC Museum


Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock History1822 Carriage Clock by Breguet

Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock History1905 Leather Dashboard Clock Holder

In the early days of the "horseless carriage", automobiles were open vehicles with a dash or kick board in front of the driver's legs. The first car clocks were often large timepieces in heavy leather holders which were slung over the dashboard.

Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock History1911 Heuer "Time of Trip"

The "Time of Trip", the first dashboard chronograph patented by (TAG) Heuer in 1911, was designed for aircraft and automobiles. Its 11-cm diameter and its size are well suited for installation on all types of dashboards. The large hands at the centre of the dial indicate the time. The small pair of hands, at the 12 o'clock position, give the duration of the trip (not exceeding 12 hours). The same button is used to start, stop and reset the clock. A small window at the 3 o'clock position serves to monitor the proper operation of the device.

Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock History1912 Brown Clock-Speedometer

Speedometers were available as standard equipment in vehicles as early as 1908, though most drivers could not afford this luxury. Often speedometers were combined with odometers, trip meters and clocks.

Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock History1925 Phinney-Walker Rim-Wind Car Clock

The "Embassy" was one of the most popular car clocks produced by Phinney-Walker. The eight day clock was wound and set by rotating the outer rim.

Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock History1925 Limosine Clock

This car clock was made by Waltham for use in Cadillac limousines. The clock would have been mounted on the partition which separated the driver from the passenger compartment.


Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock History1929 Waltham 8 Day
Dial color matching car color

Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock History1932 Jaeger

Along with Sterling Electric, Jaeger was a major manufacturer of 1930s car clocks. Their clocks could be seen in Cadillacs, Packards and Lincolns in the thirties. This clock was made for the Packard Super 8.

Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock History1933 Heuer Autavia Dashboard Timer

In 1933, Heuer introduced the "Autavia", a dashboard timer used for Automobiles and Aviation (and thus the name "Autavia"). The companion "Hervue" was a clock that had an 8-day movement (meaning that it could run for eight days without being wound).

Heuer Collection at On The Dash

Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock History1941 Packard "Woody" 110 Station Sedan Dashboard Clock

Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock History"The Woody"

Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock History1950s Ford

Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock History1951 Ford

Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock History1952 Pontiac Chieftain Deluxe Station Wagon

One of the most spectacular car clocks I've seen. The clock is by far the largest feature in the entire dashboard.

Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock HistoryChieftain Station Wagon

Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock History1955 Ford

Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock History1956 Oldsmobile
clock above, car below

Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock History
Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock History1960 Oldsmobile
clock above, car below

Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock History
Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock History1965 Dodge Dart

Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock History1970s Cadillac

And of course, digital displays started to appear in the seventies. This one from a Cadillac featuring rolling drums of numbers like most alarm clocks of that era.

Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock History2006 Peugeot 908 RC concept car
by Bell & Ross

Watch brand, Bell & Ross was picked to appoint the dashboard clock in this concept car. Featuring a jumping digital hour and central minutes hand based upon their timepiece of similar design.

Time On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock HistoryWatch brand, IWC with their clock
in a Mercedes S63 AMG

And if you have any unique dashboard clocks you'd like to share for a future follow-up to this posting, please email me.

Related Posts;
Radiator Grille Watches
Delorean Time DMC2 Wristwatch
Audemars Piguet Maserati Millenary MC12
Kienzle Life 2002 Jump Hour
Azimuth Chrono Gauge Mecha
Paul Smith Dashboard Watch
Heuer Silverstone
Heuer Ford Chronosplit
Tag Heuer Monaco V4 Belt Drive Watch
Formex Shock Absorber Watch
Gerald Genta Arena Chrono Quattro Retro
Parmigiani Bugatti Engine Block Watch
Manometro
Dunhill Petrolhead
Richard Arbib
B.R.M. Birotor
Driver Watches



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The Clockmaster of New York City

The Clockmaster of New York City
"New Yorkers look to the time the way farmers look to the weather. Many have their own idiosyncratic maps of public street clocks they rely on, scurrying to work or late for appointments, but few would imagine that so many of those clocks run thanks to a man named Marvin Schneider."

New York Times Article-->Link

The Clockmaster of New York CityAudio Slide Show-->Link


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Vintage LED AND LCD - Shacking Up For a Few Years

Vintage LED AND LCD - Shacking Up For a Few YearsBridging the gap between battery draining LED (light emitting diodes) and the more economical LCD (liquid crystal displays) was a brief period (1974-76ish) when both displays were used in one watch. Their purpose was primarily for displaying the time both day and night as internal lamp functions were not fully developed. Very few brands used this configuration but featured here are most of them...

1975 Longines Gemini II - module by Hughes Aircraft Co. (original advertisement above and detail photos below)

Vintage LED AND LCD - Shacking Up For a Few Years
Vintage LED AND LCD - Shacking Up For a Few Years
1975 Heuer Chronosplit, a sports timer and watch, later made with dual LCD displays. This version is the rarest.

Vintage LED AND LCD - Shacking Up For a Few Years1975 Heuer (pre-Tag) Chronosplit Ad

Vintage LED AND LCD - Shacking Up For a Few Years1976 Helbros

Vintage LED AND LCD - Shacking Up For a Few Years
1976 Longines -->Link

Vintage LED AND LCD - Shacking Up For a Few Years
Croton "Terrestrial" -->Link

Vintage LED AND LCD - Shacking Up For a Few Years



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Culture de la Haute Horlogerie Films

Culture de la Haute Horlogerie Films
A very thorough and interesting series of videos by the Culture de la Haute Horlogerie. Featuring everything from the watch designer to the guilloche artist. Click the images below to see them.

Culture de la Haute Horlogerie FilmsDressing the Watch



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Victorian 1886 Spy Camera Pocket Watch

Victorian 1886 Spy Camera Pocket Watch
An update to my original vintage subminiature spy watch-cameras post (link) the other week with this remarkable find (Thanks to Alex at QP). This 1886 Victorian Lancaster Pocket Watch Camera predates what I thought to be the first camera watch in 1907. It just sold at a Bonhams auction for £18,000

From Bonhams;

The Lancaster Ladies Watch Camera was brought into Bonhams by a gentleman whose grandfather had owned it originally. He was a cabinetmaker at the Birmingham-based firm J. Lancaster & Son, probably working on the many wooden cameras sold by the company. The vendor, consigning several watches to one of Bonhams’ sales, noticed that among his collection was what looked like an ordinary nickel-plated pocket watch case when closed – but when he opened it he discovered that it actually contained a tiny camera inside.

Lionel Hughes, Bonhams’ Camera Specialist, was delighted to come across the piece:
“This is a truly exceptional piece, and the price achieved at Bonhams today reflects this,” he explained. “The Lancaster Watch Camera was patented in October 1886 and made until 1890. Such tiny cameras were the forerunners for the ‘spy’ camera – a mechanism disguised as a different object. However, it would have been very inconvenient to use as four very small catches had to be released in order to remove the glass screen and to fit a separate metal sensitised material holder for each exposure. As a result, the model sadly sold badly and is much rarer than the improved version which came on the market in 1890. The ladies’ pattern is therefore particularly special, and only four original models are known to exist."


Victorian 1886 Spy Camera Pocket Watch
Victorian 1886 Spy Camera Pocket Watch
Victorian 1886 Spy Camera Pocket Watch
Related posts;
Subminiature Spy Watches
1950s Minifon Spy Recorder Watch
James Bond Movie Gadget Watches


Click to see one of my favorite new watches under $200

Victorian 1886 Spy Camera Pocket Watch


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Vivid Vintage Vulcain

Vivid Vintage Vulcain
Vulcain, a Swiss brand in existence since 1858 with their claim to fame with the 'Cricket' alarm watches created 90 years later. A relatively traditional brand with conservative styles that extend to today. But along came the sixties and seventies, the magic decades of originality and a playground of strange and wonderful designs from unexpected playmates.

Therefore, I've compiled an exhibit of rare vintage Vulcains of that time.

Vivid Vintage VulcainA 1970s Vulcain Cricket Alarm from the original 1947 mechanical invention inspired by the tiny insect with a big sound. When activated, the alarm ratchet vibrates on your wrist and is surprisingly loud.

Vivid Vintage VulcainAn automatic winding vertical jump hour with integral cloth band as part of the watch case itself.

Vivid Vintage VulcainTwo models (jump hour digital and analog) with case concealing bands.

Vivid Vintage VulcainA parking meter style jump hour from the 60s

Vivid Vintage VulcainAn obscure Vulcain 'Cobra', a hard plastic case curving around the wrist like a snakehead. The top band is soft leather that fits into the solid band on the bottom. Really unusual!

Vivid Vintage VulcainThe very strange Vulcain 'Eye'

Vivid Vintage VulcainOne of my favorites, an asymmetric model with gradation turquoise/silver dial, a grooved steel case and unusual band that attaches over the top of the case and under at the bottom. Has a very 1960s concept car appearance.

Vivid Vintage VulcainAnother variation of the asymmetric style above.

Vivid Vintage VulcainA mod curvex style metal block model

Vivid Vintage VulcainMystery watch with floating dial/movement

Vivid Vintage VulcainSkeletonized Vulcain

Vivid Vintage Vulcain1960s Vulcain Nautical Cricket Diver

Vivid Vintage VulcainAnd Vulcain today, with (from clockwise), the The Tourbillon Imperial Gong (Link), Golden Voice Classic (Link), Vulcanographe (Link), and the revival 1961 Cricket Nautical (Link).

Related posts;
60's-70's Enicar-->Link
Vintage plastic watches-->Link
Bullhead Chronos-->Link
Jump Hours-->Link

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Perrelet Titanium Double Rotor

Perrelet Titanium Double Rotor
Perrelet's new Titanium Collection. Featuring a double rotor seen from front and back.

Back in 1770, the genius watchmaker Abraham-Louis Perrelet invented the "Perpetuelles" automatic winding movement, the original self-winding concept - the pedometer watch, which had an oscillating weight that moved up and down as one walked, supplying energy to the mainspring in the process. And like most geniuses, his invention wasn't appreciated or even appropriate until a mobile wristwatch could be invented - over a hundred years later!


Perrelet Titanium Double RotorOriginal 18th Century Perrelet Perpetuelle

via TimeZone


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The Meandering History of Wandering HoursJam Handy Watchmaking Films of 1947-1949 for Hamilton Watch Co.The Rarest Digital Watches - 1972 Dynamic Scattering LCDTime On The Road - A Dash of Dashboard Clock HistoryThe Clockmaster of New York CityVintage LED AND LCD - Shacking Up For a Few YearsCulture de la Haute Horlogerie FilmsVictorian 1886 Spy Camera Pocket WatchVivid Vintage VulcainPerrelet Titanium Double Rotor

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